The answer here is "probably not."
When you click the "add picture" button in the editor, your image gets sent to Imgur, who re-host the image. They give your image a unique line-noise name like
AbCdE.jpg, generate medium- and small-sized versions with names like
AbCdEs.jpg, and then host and serve those images for the duration of the Imgur-SE contract, which just started its twelfth year.
If you re-upload your image, it'll get a new name like
fGhIj.jpg. The previous version is still there, but you are extremely unlikely to guess its name. If know the name, you can ask to have it deleted. But if you have forgotten the name, there is no easy way to recover that name from the private list of every image uploaded from the entire SE network.
The real problem here is probably that the SE "saved a draft" feature is kind of delicate (see confusion here, see explanation here).
Consider saving your drafts in this Meta sandbox, which uses the SE version history features, or using a service like https://stackedit.io/. If you are editing version 5 of a post and you need an image link you created in version 3, you can just grab it from the edit history.