I was looking for guidelines, but the best I could find is this. Is there a better statement somewhere?
No, what you found is the official, authoritative policy on homework-like questions. You might find a post that explains a particular point of the homework policy more clearly, but in general, that is the best available.
That was hard enough to find. Perhaps an entry could be put in the help to make it easier to find.
You mean like this entry in the help center?
Between this and the fact that this post is linked from every question closed as homework-like, I think we've made it relatively easy to find. If there is a specific situation in which it would make sense to add another link to the post, we can do that, but we'd need more details.
I thought this was a settled issue, but the comments to the answer I linked suggest otherwise. Do we have a consensus? If we are not a homework help site, I would think that we would want to discourage complete answers.
What you don't see is the many weeks of discussion in chat and previous posts on meta that went into crafting that policy. Keep in mind that people who agree with the policy (and in particular, those who were involved in the discussions that created it) have no need to comment on the post. There is a selection bias which makes the comments under the post more likely to oppose it.
We should probably delete those comments as they are very old, and any changes to the policy inspired by the comments will already have been made. (This doesn't stop people from proposing such changes via new meta posts, of course.)