This was answered in the comments, but to make it more formal: the documentation for this and all badges is in the help centre and in the cross-network Meta Stack Exchange; in this case in Asking days badges. Quoting from there,
positive question record
(total questions - negative questions - closed - deleted) /total questions >= 0.5
It triple counts a question that is downvoted, closed, and deleted. If you ask one that hits that trifecta, you'll need to ask three better questions to dig yourself out.
And just to emphasise again, the mother meta is the first place to check for these things.